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October History, Trivia & Fun Facts

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Now You Know...

October is the tenth month in the Gregorian calendar, received its name from the Latin numeral octo meaning "eight", because in the original Roman calendar it was the eighth month.

Fascinating October lore here

October Gemstone:
October Flower:

The Zodiac signs for October are Libra or Scorpio (October 23 -31)

► It''s weird that October isn't the eighth month, isn't it?
► Hawaii has a special October event called "the Aloha Festival," sometimes described as the "Mardi Gras of the Pacific."
► Columbus Day is celebrated the second Monday every October.
► Germany's Oktoberfest originally began on October 17, 1810, the wedding day of King Ludwig I.
► The annual festival starts much earlier, often in September. In America, special holidays start earlier well. Christmas celebrations and sales start in September, and even July in some department stores.
► Dayight Savings Time ends every year at 2:00 A.M. local time on the last Sunday of October
► October's flower is the calendula.
► October is the tenth month in the Gregorian calendar, received its name from the Latin numeral octo meaning "eight", because in the original Roman calendar it was the eighth month.
► October begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Libra and ends in the sign of Scorpio.

About October

Second Weekend in October: National Kegger Weekend

October Is...
Adopt A Shelter Dog Month
American Cheese Month
American Pharmacist Month
Apple Month
Arts & Humanities Month
National Applejack Month
Breast Cancer Awareness Month
Caramel Month
Celiac Disease Awareness Month
Clergy Appreciation Month
Cookbook Month
Cookie Month
Cyber Security Awareness Month
Dessert Month
Domestic Violence Awareness Month
Dwarfism/Little People Awareness Month
Eczema Awareness Month
Filipino-American History Month
German-American Heritage Month
Hispanic Heritage Month
Italian-American Heritage Month
Lupus Awareness Month
National Arts & Humanities Month
National Down Syndrome Awareness Month
National Roller Skating Month
Pasta Month
Pickled Peppers Month
Pizza Month
Polish-American Heritage Month
Popcorn Popping Month
Pork Month
Positive Awareness Month
Pretzel Month
National Month of Sarcasm
Seafood Month
Squirrel Awareness & Appreciation Month
Vegetarian Month

"October, the tenth month of the current Gregorian calendar and the second month of Autumn’s rule, derives its name from octo, the Latin word meaning “eight,” as October was the eighth month of the old Roman calendar. The traditional birthstone amulets of October are opal, rose sapphire, and tourmaline; and the calendula is the month’s traditional flower.

October is shared by the astrological signs of Libra the Scales (or Balance) and Scorpio the Scorpion, and is sacred to the following Pagan deities: Cernunnos, Hecate, the Morrigan, Osiris, and the Wiccan Goddess in Her dark aspect as the Crone.

During the month of October, the Great Solar Wheel of the Year is turned to Halloween (Samhain Eve), one of the four Grand Sabbats celebrated each year by Wiccans and modern Witches throughout the world."
- Secrets of a Witch

► Hawaii has a special October event called "the Aloha Festival," sometimes described as the "Mardi Gras of the Pacific."
► Columbus Day is celebrated the second Monday every October.
► Germany's Oktoberfest originally began on October 17, 1810, the wedding day of King Ludwig I.
► The annual festival starts much earlier, often in September. In America, special holidays start earlier well. Christmas celebrations and sales start in September, and even July in some department stores.
► Dayight Savings Time ends every year at 2:00 A.M. local time on the last Sunday of October

October Quotes

"Just before the death of flowers, and before they are buried in snow,
There comes a festival season when nature is all aglow."
- unknown

"There is no season when such pleasant and sunny spots may be lighted on, and produce so pleasant an effect on the feelings, as now in October."
- Nathaniel Hawthorne

"Rain in October means wind in December."
- Farmer saying

"When birds and badgers are fat in October, expect a cold winter.
When berries are many in October beware a hard winter."
- unknown

"All things on earth point home in old October: sailors to sea, travellers to walls and fences, hunters to field and hollow and the long voice of the hounds, the lover to the love he has forsaken."
- Thomas Wolfe

"In October dung your fields, and your land its wealth shall yield."
-Farmer saying

"The falling leaves drift by the window
The autumn leaves of red and gold
I see your lips, the summer kisses
The sun-burned hands I used to hold

Since you went away the days grow long
And soon I'll hear old winter's song
But I miss you most of all my darling
When autumn leaves start to fall."
- Johnny Mercer and Jacques Prévert in Autumn Leaves

"October is nature's funeral month. Nature glories in death more than in life. The month of departure is more beautiful than the month of coming - October than May. Every green thin loves to die in bright colors."
- Henry Ward Beecher

"If ducks do slide at Hallowtide,
At Christmas they will swim;
If ducks do swim at Hallowtide
At Christmas they will slide."
- unknown

"Always will there be Twenty-nine fine days in October."

"If the October moon comes without frost, expect no frost till the moon of November."
- Farmer saying

"October. This is one of the peculiarly dangerous months to speculate in stocks in. The others are July, January, September, April, November, May, March, June, December, August, and February."
-Mark Twain

"Listen! The wind is rising, and the air is wild with leaves, we have had our summer evenings, now for October eves!"
- Humbert Wolfe

"You kind of took it for granted around the Yankees that there was always going to be baseball in October."
-Whitey Ford

October History

October 1
► 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeated Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela, bringing about the fall of the Persian Empire.

► 1843 - London's The News of the World began publication.

► 1880 - John Philip Sousa, the first recorded popular music star, became the leader of the United States Marine Band.

► 1908 - For $825 each, Ford's Model T car was put on the market.

► 1940 - The Pennsylvania Turnpike opened to traffic. It is considered the first US superhighway.

► 1948 - Over Fargo, North Dakota, WW II pilot George F. Gorman reported 'playing chicken" with a blinking orb of light UFO. It was visually seen by people in the control tower, but did not show up on radar.

► 1955 - The Honeymooners premiered on CBS

► 1957 - First appearance of "In God We Trust" on U.S. paper currency, on one dollar bills.

► 1958 - The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) became the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

► 1971 - Walt Disney World opened near Orlando, Florida.

► 1989 - Denmark introduced the world's first legal modern same-sex civil union, called a "registered partnership".

► 1992 - Cartoon Network begins broadcasting. The first cartoon, outside of Droopy Dog's introduction, was Bugs Bunny in Rhapsody Rabbit.

► 1992- Cartoon Network is initiated.

► 1996 - Animal Planet made its debut

► 1999 - The infamous "You Fool" episode of Hollywood Squares aired.

► 2006 - Dexter premiered on Showtime

► 2010 - Sony launched Sony Movie Channel

► 2013 - The United States federal government shutdown of 2013 (October 1-16) affected many operations for the US government

October 2
► 1187 - Saladin captured Jerusalem from Balian of Ibelin.

► 1893 - Cheniere Caminada Hurricane, Louisiana

► 1950 - Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz was first published.

► 1955 - Alfred Hitchcock premiered on CBS

► 1958 - The Huckleberry Hound Show premiered, in syndication

► 1959 - The anthology series The Twilight Zone premiered on CBS.

► 1967 - Thurgood Marshall was sworn in as the first African-American justice of United States Supreme Court.

► 1968 - The Tlatelolco massacre took place in Mexico City. 30-300 student protesters and supporters were killed.

► 2000 - Triple Play (3 cars) was played for the first time on The Price is Right.

► 2002 - The Beltway sniper attacks began. Paul LaRuffa, a 55-year-old pizzeria owner, was shot six times at close range - he survived, but 17 other people did not.

► 2006 - Five school girls were murdered by Charles Carl Roberts in a shooting at an Amish school in Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania

October 3
► 1863 - The last Thursday in November was declared as Thanksgiving Day by US President Abraham Lincoln.

► 1872 - The Bloomingdale brothers opened their first store at 938 Third Avenue, in New York City.

► 1949 - WERD, the first black-owned radio station in the United States, opened in Atlanta. WERD was at 860 AM, and is now WAEC.

► 1955 - Captain Kangaroo premiered on CBS

► 1955 - The Mickey Mouse Club premiered on ABC

► 1957 - The California State Superior Court ruled that Allen Ginsberg's Howl and Other Poems was not obscene.

► 1960 - The Andy Griffith Show premiered on CBS

► 1961 - The Dick Van Dyke Show premiered on CBS

► 1985 - The Space Shuttle Atlantis makes its first flight.

► 1988 - Turner Network Television (TNT) began on cable, with Gone With The Wind

► 1992- Singer Sinead O'Conner stirred up controversy when she ripped up a picture of Pope John Paul II on Saturday Night Live

► 1995 - More than 150 million people tuned in for the announcement of the verdict in the O.J. Simpson trial. The not guilty verdict was met with both praise and criticism.

► 2204 - Desperate Housewives premiered on ABC

October 4
► 1535 - The first complete English-language Bible (the Coverdale Bible) was printed, translated by William Tyndale and Myles Coverdale.

► 1876 - Texas A&M University opened as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas.

► 1883 - First run of the Orient Express, from Paris, to Giurgiu in Romania via Munich and Vienna.

► 1895 - The first U.S. Open Men's Golf Championship was played at the Newport Country Club in Newport, Rhode Island.

► 1941 - Norman Rockwell's Willie Gillis character debuted on the cover of The Saturday Evening Post.

► 1957 - The USSR launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth.

► 1965 - Pope Paul VI's visit to New York got television coverage on all 3 American networks. The Papal Mass at Yankee Stadium was broadcast in color.

► 1980 - Heathcliff premiered on ABC Saturday morning

► 1988 - Televangelist Jim Bakker was indicted for fraud.

► 1990 - Beverly Hills, 90210 premiered on FOX

► 2004 - SpaceShipOne won the Ansari X Prize, for private spaceflight, by being the first private craft to fly into space.

October 5
► 1944 - Suffrage was extended to women in France.

► 1947 - The first televised White House address was given by US President Harry S. Truman.

► 1950 - You Bet Your Life, featuring Groucho Marx, premiered on NBC.

► 1962 - Dr. No, the first in the James Bond film series, was released.

► 1966 There was a partial core meltdown at the Enrico Fermi demonstration nuclear breeder reactor, near Detroit, Michigan.

► 1969 - The first episode of Monty Python's Flying Circus aired on BBC One. It ran 45 episodes, until 1974.

► 1970 - The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) began broadcasting and National Educational Television (NET) closed.

► 1982 - Johnson & Johnson began a nationwide product recall in the US for all products in its Tylenol brand after several bottles in Chicago were found to have been laced with cyanide, resulting in seven deaths.

► 1984 - Marc Garneau became the first Canadian in space, flying aboard the US Space Shuttle Challenger.

► 1991 - The first official version of the Linux kernel (version 0.02) was released.

► 2001 - Barry Bonds surpassed Mark McGwire's single-season home run total withthe 71st and 72nd home runs.

► 2011 - American Horror Story premiered on FX

October 6
► 1876 - The American Library Association was founded.

► 1927 - Opening of The Jazz Singer with its Vitaphone sound-on-disc system, in New York City.

► 1948 (Earthquake) Ashgabat, Soviet Union

► 1948 - The first television network soap opera, Faraway Hill, is broadcast by the DuMont Network.

► 1981 - Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat was murdered by Khalid Islambouli.

► 1985 - Jem and the Holograms debuted, in syndication

► 1986 - Double Dare premiered on Nickelodeon

► 2000 - CSI: Crime Scene Investigation premiered on CBS

► 2004 - Ghost Hunters premiered on Syfy

► 2007 - Jason Lewis completed the first human-powered circumnavigation of the globe (pedal power).

October 7
► 3761 BC - Today was the first day of creation, according to the Jewish Talmudic Calendar.

► 1737 (Cyclone) India

► 1919 - KLM, the Netherlands official airline, was founded.

► 1933 - Air France began, with the merger of 5 smaller French airlines.

► 1950 - Mother Teresa opened the Missionary of Charity

► 1952 - WFIL in Philadelphia introduced Bandstand (later called American Bandstand)

► 1958 - The US manned space-flight project was renamed Project Mercury. It was originally called Project Astronaut.

► 1985 - The Achille Lauro was hijacked by Palestine Liberation Front. The hijackers killed wheel-chair bound Jewish-American passenger Leon Klinghoffer, throwing him overboard after shooting him.

► 1996 - The Fox News Channel begins broadcasting.

October 8
► 1860 - Telegraph line between Los Angeles and San Francisco began operating.

► 1881 - Haighong Typhoon, Vietnam

► 1871 - Peshtigo Fire, Wisconsin (2000 estimated dead)

► 1871 - Great Michigan Fire (500? killed)

► 1871 - Peshtigo, Wisconsin Fire (over 1200 killed)

► 1871 - Great Chicago Fire (300 estimated dead)

► 1967 - Che Guevara and his men were captured in Bolivia.

► 1982 - Cats, based on Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats by T. S. Eliot, opened on Broadway and ran for nearly 18 years before closing on September 10, 2000.

► 1984 - 'The Burning Bed' starring Farrah Fawcett, aired on NBC

► 1986 - The Fox Broadcasting Company became the US' fourth commercial broadcast television network, with The Late Show, hosted by Joan Rivers.

► 2001 - US President George W. Bush announced the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security.

► 2005 (Earthquake) Kashmir, Pakistan

October 9
► 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne were crowned Kings of The Franks. Carloman dies in 771, and Charlemagne reigned until 814.

► 1767 - Surveying for the Mason-Dixon line separating Maryland from Pennsylvania was completed.

► 1824 - Slavery was abolished in Costa Rica.

► 1873 - The US Naval Institute was established.

► 1888 - The Washington Monument officially opened to the public.

► 1919 - The Cincinnati Reds won the World Series, and eight White Sox players were later accused of intentionally losing games in exchange for money from gamblers.

► 1967 - Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara was exectuded in Bolivia .

► 1980 - Pope John Paul II met and shook hands with the Dalai Lama in Vatican City.

► 2006 - North Korea may have tested its first nuclear device.

► 2012 - Pakistani Taliban made a failed attempt to assassinate 15 year-old Malala Yousafzai on her way home from school.

October 10
► 1780 - The Great Hurricane of 1780 killed20,000 to 30,000 people in the Caribbean region.

► 1845 - In Annapolis, Maryland, the Naval School (now the United States Naval Academy) opened.

► 1871 - The Great Chicago Fire finally dissipated.

► 1871 - Tau Epsilon Phi was founded at Columbia University (other organizations did not allow Jewish members)

► 1918 - The Cloquet Fire, northern Minnesota, USA

► 1957 - The finance minister of Ghana, Komla Agbeli Gbedemah, was refused service in a Howard Johnson's restaurant in Dover, Delaware. It was a bit of an international incident. He later was invited to dine with US President Dwight D. Eisenhower.

► 1964 - NBC aired the 1964 Summer Olympics opening ceremony at Tokyo, Japan, with the first time of live Olympic telecast program, by geostationary communication satellite, Syncom 3.

► 1973 - Vice President of the US Spiro Agnew resigned, after being charged with evasion of federal income tax.

► 1983 - Adam, a TV-movie about the mysterious disappearance of Adam Walsh, premiered on NBC

► 2010 - Cable channel The Hub (Now Discovery Family) made its debut in the United States.

► 2012 - Nashville premiered on ABC

October 11
► 1138 (Earthquake) Aleppo, Syria

► 1811 -The Juliana, began operation as the first steam-powered ferry service between New York City, New York, and Hoboken, New Jersey.

► 1852 - The University of Sydney, Australia's oldest university, opened.

► 1890 The Daughters of the American Revolution were founded, in Washington, DC.

► 1958 - NASA launched the lunar probe Pioneer 1.

► 1962 - Pope John XXIII convenes the Second Vatican Council, changing several rules, including saying The mass in the local languages and having the celebrant (priest) face the congregation.

► 1973 - Charles Hickson and Calvin Parker were abducted by aliens in Mississippi, they told authorities.

► 1984 - Aastronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan becomes the first American woman to perform a space walk, on the Space Shuttle Challenger.

► 2006 - 30 Rock premiered on NBC

October 12
► 1792 - First celebration of Columbus Day in the US was held in New York City.

► 1810 - Oktoberfest begins: In Germany, the Bavarian royal family invited the citizens of Munich to join the celebration of the marriage of Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria to Princess Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen.

► 1823 - Charles Macintosh of Scotland began selling his 'raincoat.'

► 1918 - Cloquet Fire, Minnesota killed over 400 people.

► 1950 - The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show debuted on CBS.

► 1960 - Nikita Khrushchev famously pounded his shoe on a desk at United Nations General Assembly.

► 1964 - The USSR launched Voskhod 1 into Earth orbit as the first spacecraft with a multi-person crew; it was the first flight without space suits.

► 1979 - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, the first of five books in the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy comedy science fiction series by Douglas Adams was published. The Answer? 42.

► 1994 - NASA lost radio contact with the Magellan spacecraft as it descended into the thick, acidic atmosphere of Venus.

► 2000 - The USS Cole was badly damaged in Aden, Yemen, by two suicide bombers, killing 17 crew members and wounding at least 39.

October 13
► 1773 - The Whirlpool Galaxy, almost 25 million light years away, was discovered by Charles Messier.

► 1775 - The United States Continental Congress ordered the establishment of the Continental Navy (later renamed the United States Navy).

► 1843 - B'nai B'rith was founded in New York City.

► 1917 - The 10 minute "Miracle of the Sun" was witnessed by an estimated 70,000 people in the Cova da Iria in Fátima, Portugal.

► 1958 - Paddington Bear made his debut in 'A Bear Called Paddington.'

► 1963 (Volcano Eruption) Kuril Islands

► 1991- Jennifer Lopez joined the cast of "In Living Color" as a Fly Girl. Jamie Foxx, Steve Park and Shawn Wayans are also added to the cast.

► 2010 - The 2010 Copiapo mining accident in Copiapo, Chile ended as all 33 miners came to the surface after surviving a record 69 days underground.

October 14
► 1926 - Winnie the Pooh, by A. A. Milne, was first published.

► 1881 - Eyemouth Windstorm Disaster, Scotland

► 1908 - The Chicago Cubs defeated the Detroit Tigers, 2-0, winning the World Series.

► 1912 - Former President of the US, Theodore Roosevelt, was shot and mildly wounded by John Schrank. With the fresh wound and bullet in his chest, Roosevelt still gave his scheduled speech.

► 1947 - Captain Chuck Yeager flew a Bell X-1 rocket-powered (and experimental) aircraft, the Glamorous Glennis, faster than the speed of sound over the high desert of Southern California.

► 1964 - Martin Luther King, Jr. received the Nobel Peace Prize for striving to end racial inequality through non-violence.

► 1972 - Kung Fu premiered on ABC

► 1982 - President Ronald Reagan proclaimed the War on Drugs.

► 1994 - Palestinian leader, Yasser Arafat, The Prime Minister of Israel, Yitzhak Rabin, and the Foreign Minister of Israel, Shimon Peres, receive the Nobel Peace Prize for their role in the establishment of the Oslo Accords.

► 2003 - The 'Steve Bartman Incident' occurred during a Major League Baseball (MLB) in the eighth inning of Game 6 of the National League Championship Series game played between the Chicago Cubs and the Florida Marlins. Chicago lost.

► 2007 - Keeping Up with the Kardashians premiered on E!

October 15
► 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII implemented the Gregorian calendar. In several countries October 4 of that year was followed directly by October 15.

► 1878 - The Edison Electric Light Company began operations.

► 1888 - The "From Hell" letter sent by Jack the Ripper was received by the London authorities (Whitechapel Vigilance Committee).

► 1951 - I Love Lucy premiered on CBS. It was filmed on three cameras, a TV first.

► 1966 - The Black Panther Party was created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.

► 1987 - Bob Barker, host of The Price Is Right, stopped dying his hair. The audience gave hima standing ovation when he came onstage, white-haired

► 2000 - Curb Your Enthusiasm premiered on HBO

► 2001 - Smallville premiered on The WB

October 16
► 1793 - Marie Antoinette, widow of Louis XVI, was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. The phrase "Let them eat cake" is often attributed to Marie but there is no evidence she ever said it.

► 1814 - The Great Beer Flood. More than 323,000 gallons of beer burst out of the Meux and Company Brewery and poured into the streets of St. Giles, London, England.

► 1869 - The Cardiff Giant was "discovered" in Cardiff, New York.

► 1875 - Brigham Young University was founded in Provo, Utah.

► 1916 - In Brooklyn, New York, Margaret Sanger opened the first family planning clinic in the United States.

► 1944 - Wally Walrus debuted in The Beach Nut, a Walter Lantz's cartoon.

► 1968 - Tommie Smith and John Carlos were kicked off the US team for participating in the 1968 Olympics Black Power salute.

► 1978 - Karol Wojtyla was elected Pope John Paul II, the first non-Italian pontiff since 1523.

► 1984 - Desmond Tutu was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

► 1995 - The Million Man March took place in Washington, DC. Between 400,000 and 850,000 people marched.

October 17
► 1091 - The London Tornado of 1091 destroyed many buildings, and killed two people.

► 1814 - The London Beer Flood killed 8 people.

► 1860 - First Open (Golf) Championship (referred to in the US as the British Open).

► 1919 - Radio Corporation of America (RCA) incorporated.

► 1931 - Al Capone was convicted of income tax evasion.

► 1956 - The first commercial nuclear power station is officially opened in Sellafield, Cumbria, England.

► 1956 - Donald Byrne and Bobby Fischer played a game of chess labeled The Game of the Century. Fischer beat Byrne.

► 1958 - An Evening With Fred Astaire premiered, it was one the first "special" programs on television, and won nine Emmy Awards.

► 1965 - The 1964-65 New York World's Fair closed. Over 51 million people had attended the event.

► 1966 - All of NBC's news programming began airing in full-color.

► 1973 - OPEC imposed an oil embargo against a number of Western countries.

► 1979 - The Department of Education Organization Act was signed into law, creating the US Department of Education and US Department of Health and Human Services.

► 1979 - Mother Teresa won the Nobel Peace Prize.

► 1989 (Earthquake) The Lome Prieta earthquake interrupted Game 3 of the World Series

► 2005 - The Colbert Report premiered on Comedy Central

► 2007 - Storm Chasers debuted on The Discovery Channel

► 2008 - Ghost Adventures premiered on The Travel Channel

October 18
► 1386 - The University of Heidelberg opened.

► 1620 - The Mayflower landed at Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts.

► 1851 - Herman Melville's Moby-Dick was first published as 'The Whale.'

► 1867 - "Seward's Folly" United States took possession of Alaska after purchasing it from Russia for $7.2 million.

► 1898 - The United States took possession of Puerto Rico from Spain.

► 1922 - The British Broadcasting Company (Corporation) BBC was founded.

► 1954 - Texas Instruments introduced the first Transistor radio.

► 1964 - Jackie Mason appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show and may have given Ed "the finger" on the air. He never appeared on the show again.

► 1968 - The US Olympic Committee suspended Tommie Smith and John Carlos for giving a "Black Power" salute during a victory ceremony at the Mexico City games.

► 1988 - Rosanne premiered on ABC

October 19
► 1512 - Martin Luther earned a doctorate of theology.

► 1798 - Chief Justice John Jay was sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States.

► 1982 - St. Elsewhere premiered on NBC

► 1987 - The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell by 22% (508 points), named Black Monday.

► 2003 - Mother Teresa was beatified (step before sainthood) by Pope John Paul II.

► 2004 - The Biggest Loser premiered on NBC.

► 2012 - Built in 1952, Big Tex, a 52-foot statue and icon in Dallas was destroyed by fire in the 2012 State Fair of Texas.

October 20
► 1720 - Caribbean pirate Calico Jack Rackham, one of the first pirates to use the "Jolly Roger", was captured by the Royal Navy.

► 1803 - The United States Senate ratified the Louisiana Purchase.

► 1818 - The Convention of 1818 was signed between the US and the UK which settled the Canada/United States border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.

► 1873 - Yale, Princeton, Columbia, and Rutgers universities drafted the (American) Football rules.

► 1944 - Liquid natural gas exploded from storage tanks in Cleveland, killing 130 people.

► 1951 - CBS began using the "Eyeball" logo.

► 1968 - Jacqueline Kennedy married Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis.

► 1977 - Lynyrd Skynyrd members Ronnie Van Zandt, Steve Gaines and Cassie Gaines died in a plane crash. None were aged 27.

► 1981 - Two police officers and a Brinks armored car guard are killed during an armed $1.6 million robbery in Rockland County, New York, carried out by members of the Black Liberation Army and Weather Underground.

► 1991 - The Oakland Hills, California firestorm killed 25 people.

► 2001 - Concert For New York: A Tribute To Heroes was broadcast on VH1, and other networks. It raised funds for the families of those killed by the September 11 terrorist attacks.

► 2011 - The National Transitional Council rebel forces captured (in hiding) Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi in his hometown of Sirte.

October 21
► 1520 - Ferdinand Magellan discovers a strait now known as Strait of Magellan in South America.

► 1797 - In Boston Harbor, the 44-gun United States Navy frigate USS Constitution was launched. It was the third such vessel completed for the US Navy.

► 1854 - Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses are sent to the Crimean War.

► 1921 - The Sheik, starring Rudolph Valentino, premiered in Los Angeles

► 1921 - President Warren G. Harding delivered the first speech by a sitting US President against lynching in the Deep South.

► 1940 - For Whom the Bell Tolls by Ernest Hemingway was published.

► 1959 -The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, opened in New York City.

► 1973 - John Paul Getty III's ear was cut off by his kidnappers and sent to a newspaper in Rome, with a note - "This is Paul's ear. If we don't get some money within 10 days, then the other ear will arrive. In other words, he will arrive in little bits."

► 1978 - Frederick Valenteich (flying a Cessna 182 airplane) disappeared over Melbourne, Australia reght after describing a UFO to the control tower. The last seventeen seconds of his transmission were described as 'metallic scraping.'

► 1994 - North Korea and the United States signed an agreement that required North Korea stop its nuclear weapons program and agree to inspections. On October 9, 2006, North Korea announced it had successfully conducted its first nuclear test.

► 1995 - Blind Melon's Shannon Hoon died of a cocaine overdose

October 22
► 362 - The temple of Apollo at Daphne, outside Antioch, (in modern day Turkey) was destroyed in a fire.

► 1746 - The College of New Jersey (renamed Princeton University in 1896) received its charter.

► 1836 - Sam Houston was inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of Texas.

► 1879 - Thomas Edison tested the first practical electric incandescent light bulb - it lasted 13 1/2 hours.

► 1883 - The Metropolitan Opera House in New York City opened (with a performance of Gounod's Faust).

► 1926 - J. Gordon Whitehead punched magician Harry Houdini, while he was still preparing for it) in the stomach in Montreal, later causing his death.

► 1934 - In East Liverpool, Ohio, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents shot and killed bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd.

► 1962 - US President John F. Kennedy announced that American reconnaissance planes had found Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba, and that he had ordered a naval "quarantine" of the Communist nation.

► 1964 - Jean-Paul Sartre was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, but turned down the honor because "a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution".

► 1976 - Red Dye No. 4 was banned by the US Food and Drug Administration.

► 1978 - The inauguration of Pope John Paul II took place in Saint Peter's Square.

October 23
► 1850 - The first National Women's Rights Convention opened in Worcester, Massachusetts.

► 1861 - President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus in Washington, D.C., for all military-related cases.

► 1915 -Over 25,000 women marched on Fifth Avenue, NYC to advocate their right to vote.

► 1917 - Lenin called for the October Revolution.

► 1935 - Mobsters Dutch Schultz, Abe Landau, Otto Berman, and Bernard "Lulu" Rosencrantz are fatally shot at a saloon in Newark, New Jersey - The Chophouse Massacre.

► 1946 - The United Nations General Assembly convened for the first time, in Flushing, Queens, New York City.

► 1958 - The Smurfs, a fictional race of blue dwarves, by Peyo, was serialized in the French weekly Spirou magazine.

► 2011 - Once Upon A Time premiered on ABC

October 24
► 1901 - Annie Edson Taylor, at age 63, became the first person to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel.

► 1902 (Volcano Eruption) Santa María.

► 1926 - Harry Houdini's last performance took place at the Garrick Theatre in Detroit.

► 1929 - Stock market crash on the New York Stock Exchange "Black Thursday"

► 1931 - Over the Hudson River, and connecting the Washington Heights, Manhattan in New York City to Fort Lee, New Jersey, the George Washington Bridge opened to public traffic.

► 1946 - A camera on board the V-2 No. 13 rocket took the first photograph of earth from outer space.

► 1947 - Walt Disney testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee.

► 2008 - Presidential candidate Barack Obama aired a 30-minute infomercial on CBS, NBC, Fox, BET, Univision, MSNBC and TV One.

► 2008 - Many of the world's stock exchanges experienced their worst declines in history - "Bloody Friday"

October 25
► 1938 - Archbishop of Dubuque, Francis J. L. Beckman, denounced swing music as "a degenerated musical system, turned loose to gnaw away at the moral fiber of young people."

► 1940 - Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. was named the first African American general in the United States Army.

► 1962 - Nelson Mandela was sentenced to five years in prison.

► 1964 - The Rolling Stones appeared on the Ed Sullivan Show.

► 1982 - Newhart premiered on CBS

► 1983 - Microsoft released Word, version 1

► 1993 - The Rocky Horror Picture Show made its television debut on FOX, featured a intercut live cast performance.

October 26
► 1774 - The first Continental Congress adjourned in Philadelphia.

► 1775 - King George III of Great Britain went before Parliament to declare the American colonies in rebellion, and authorized a military response to stop the American Revolution.

► 1776 - Benjamin Franklin went to France to seek French support for the American Revolution.

► 1825 - From Albany, New York to Lake Erie, the Erie Canal opened.

► 1861 - The Pony Express officially closed.

► 1881 - The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral takes place at Tombstone, Arizona. The "OK" probably referred to two families, Ormsby & Kimberly, who owned the nearby corral.

► 1936 - The first electric generator at Hoover Dam went into operation.

► 1958 - Pan American Airways made the first commercial flight of the Boeing 707, from New York City to Paris, France.

► 1984 - V (the series) premiered on NBC

► 1984 - "Baby Fae" received a heart transplant from a baboon, and died three weeks later.

► 2001 - The United States passed the first Patriot Act.

October 27
► 312 - Constantine the Great saw the Vision of the Cross. "In this sign, you shall conquer"

► 1275 - Amsterdam, in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, was founded.

► 1904 - The first underground New York City Subway line opened.

► 1955 - Rebel Without a Cause, starring James Dean was released. It premiered the night before, at the Astor Theater in New York.

► 1961 - NASA tested the first Saturn I rocket in Mission Saturn-Apollo 1.

► 1964 - Ronald Reagan delivered his "A Time for Choosing" speech on behalf of Republican presidential candidate, Barry Goldwater.

► 1966 - It's the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown aired for the first time (on CBS)

► 1996 - Pop-Up Video premieres on VH1.

► 1997 - Stock markets around the world crashed. The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 554.26 points (7.18%) to 7,161.15.

October 28
► 1420 - Beijing became the officially designated the capital of the Ming dynasty on the same year that the Forbidden City, the seat of government, was completed.

► 1492 - Christopher Columbus discovered Cuba.

► 1636 - The Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony established the first college in what would become the United States, now known as Harvard University.

► 1886 - President Grover Cleveland dedicated the Statue of Liberty, in New York Harbor.

► 1929 - "Black Monday" on Wall Street, preceding the Great Depression.

► 1943 - The supposed 'Philadelphia Experiment,' involving teleportation or invisibility by the US Navy, took place with the destroyer escort ship, the USS Eldridge. The US Navy maintains that no such experiment occurred and details of the story contradict 'well-established facts about the Eldridge.'

► 1948 - Paul Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine for his discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane).

► 1950 - The Jack Benny Show Premiered on CBS.

► 1962 - Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev ordered the removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba, ending the "Cuban Missle Crisis."

► 1965 - Construction on the 650 foot high St. Louis Arch was completed.

October 29
► 1618 - Sir Walter Raleigh was beheaded for conspiring against James I of England.

► 1886 - The first ticker tape parade took place in New York City when office workers spontaneously throw ticker tape into the streets after the Statue of Liberty was dedicated.

► 1888 - The Convention of Constantinople was signed, guaranteeing maritime passage through the Suez Canal during war and peace.

► 1929 - "Black Tuesday" - The New York Stock Exchange crashed.

► 1966 - William Hartnell made his last appearance as the First Doctor in the concluding moments of Episode 4 of the Doctor Who serial 'The Tenth Planet'.

► 1967 - Montreal's World Fair - Expo 67 closed, with over 50 million visitors.

► 1971 - Rock Guitarist Duane Allman died in a motorcycle accident.

► 1993- The very first "Got Milk?" commercial was broadcast. It was directed by Michael Bay.

► 1998 - The Gothenburg discotheque fire in Sweden killed 63 students and injured 200 more.

► 1998 - Space Shuttle Discovery took off with 77-year old John Glenn on board, making him the oldest person to go into space.

► 2012 - Hurricane Sandy hit the east coast of the United States, killing 148 people directly and 138 in the aftermath.

October 30
► 1876 - Great Backeganj Cyclone, India (now Bangladesh)

► 1945 - Jackie Robinson of the Kansas City Monarchs signed a contract for the Brooklyn Dodgers, breaking the baseball color barrier.

► 1938 - Orson Welles broadcast his radio play of H. G. Wells's The War of the Worlds.

► 1947 - The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), later becoming the World Trade Organisation (WTO), was founded.

► 1974 - The Rumble in the Jungle boxing match between Muhammad Ali and champion George Foreman took place in Kinshasa, Zaire. Ali won by knockout, knocking Foreman down just before the end of the eighth round.

► 1987 - NEC released the first 16-bit (fourth generation) video game console, the PC Engine, in Japan. It was later sold around the world under the name TurboGrafx-16.

► 2002 - Warren Zevon was featured on the Late Show with David Letterman as the only guest for the entire hour, performing several songs and spoke about being diagnosed with inoperable lung cancer.

October 31
► 683 - During the second Second Islamic Civil War and the Siege of Mecca, the Kaaba caught fire and burned down.

► 1517 - Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany.

► 1913 - Dedication of the Lincoln Highway, from Times Square in New York City to Lincoln Park in San Francisco. It was the first automobile highway going across United States.

► 1926 - Magician Harry Houdini died of gangrene and peritonitis that developed after his appendix ruptured (after an unexpected puch to the stomach a few days earlier).

► 1941 - Mount Rushmore is completed, featuring the sculpted head of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln.

► 1968 - "October Surprise" - Just before the US elections, US President Lyndon B. Johnson announced that he had ordered a complete cessation of "all air, naval, and artillery bombardment of North Vietnam" effective November 1.

► 1969 - Wal-mart incorporated in Arkansas.

► 1991 - Are You Afraid of The Dark premiered on Nickelodeon

► 1998 - WKOW in Madison, Wisconsin became one of the first high-definition broadcasts in digital television.

► 2011 - Today is the date that there were 7 billion people living on Earth.


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